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  • Writer's pictureAtanas Bogoev M.D. and Maria Cholakova

The First Signs of Myopia, Hyperopia and Astigmatism in Children

As a parent, you have to be aware of the signs of common vision problems in children, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. These conditions can affect a child's ability to see clearly and can lead to difficulty with learning, reading, and other activities. By understanding the signs of these vision problems, parents can take early action to ensure that their child's eyesight is properly corrected.

Table of Contents:

6.1. Eyeglasses

6.3. Ortho-K

Why Noticing Early Signs is Important?

It's important to note that vision problems can also affect a child's social and emotional well-being. Children who struggle with their vision may feel frustrated or embarrassed and may avoid activities that require good eyesight. By addressing vision problems early on, parents can help their children feel more confident and engaged in the world around them.

In addition to scheduling regular eye exams, there are several things that parents can do to promote good eye health in their children. Encouraging children to take frequent breaks from screens, limiting screen time, and providing a healthy diet rich in vitamins and nutrients can all help promote good vision.

Having knowledge of the signs of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in children, parents can take proactive steps to ensure that their child's eyesight improves.

Little girl with glasses standing infront of en eye chart

Risk Factors of Developing Vision Problems

There are several risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing these vision problems in children. These include a family history of vision problems, premature birth, low birth weight, and a history of eye injuries or surgeries. It's important for parents to be aware of these risk factors and to schedule regular eye exams for their children to ensure that any vision problems are detected and treated early.

The First Signs That Your Child Has Myopia

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common eye condition in which distant objects appear blurry while near objects remain clear. This condition often develops in childhood and can worsen as the child grows.

Your child may have myopia if they exhibit the following signs:

  • Squinting or holding objects close to their face to see them better

  • Complaining of headaches or eye strain after reading or watching television

  • Sitting close to the television or holding books very close to their face

  • Difficulty seeing the board in class or identifying distant objects

  • Rubbing their eyes frequently

If you notice any of these signs in your child, schedule an examination for a comprehensive eye exam. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the progression of myopia and preserve your child's eyesight.

The First Signs That Your Child Has Hyperopia

Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a vision problem where distant objects seem clear while near objects appear blurry. This condition can cause difficulty with tasks that require close vision, such as reading or writing.

The following are some signs that your child may have hyperopia:

  • Squinting or holding objects far away to see them better

  • Complaining of headaches or eye strain after reading or doing close work

  • Difficulty with reading and writing

  • Rubbing their eyes frequently

  • Tendency to avoid tasks that require close vision

If you notice any of these signs in your child, it's important to schedule an appointment with an eye doctor for a comprehensive eye exam. By detecting hyperopia early and treating it, you can slow its progression and improve your child's ability to read and see close objects clearly.

The First Signs That Your Child Has Astigmatism

Astigmatism is a common vision problem in which the cornea of the eye is irregularly shaped, causing distorted or blurred vision. Children can develop astigmatism at any age, and it may be present at birth or develop later on.

Listed below are some early signs that your child might have astigmatism:

  • Squinting or tilting their head to see clearly

  • Difficulty seeing clearly at all distances

  • Blurry or distorted vision

  • Complaining of headaches or eye strain

  • Difficulty with reading and writing

The best way to prevent these eye problems in your child is to schedule an eye examination with an eye doctor as soon as possible. In some cases, children with mild astigmatism may not require any treatment. However, take your child to a doctor for early detection as that could prevent the progression of astigmatism and improve your child's vision.

Vision Correction in Children

Vision correction is a vital part of managing myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in children. These conditions can affect a child's ability to focus and perceive the world around them, which can impact their performance in school, sports, and other activities. If not corrected refractive eye errors can cause a condition known as "lazy eye" or amblyopia.

If your child suffers from any of these vision problems, there are several treatment options available, including corrective lenses, contact lenses, and surgery. Your eye doctor will work with you to determine the best course of action based on your child's specific needs.

Eyeglasses (Corrective Lenses)


Corrective lenses are a common and effective way to correct vision problems like nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism in children. The lenses in the glasses are able to bend (refract) the light that enters the eye, which can help focus the image onto the retina and vastly improve visual clarity. Glasses also have the ability to protect the eyes from harmful UV rays and other environmental hazards.

Contact Lenses

Contact Lenses

Contact lenses are also useful for correcting common vision problems in children. Contact lenses work in much the same way as eyeglasses, but they adhere directly to the eye. Some children prefer contact lenses over glasses because they don't interfere with activities such as sports or playing outdoors. However, contact lenses require far more care, maintenance, and attention than glasses. So children must be responsible enough to handle them safely.



Orthokeratology, also known as "ortho-k," is a type of contact lens that is worn while the child sleeps. The lenses gently reshape the cornea, which can help correct myopia. Ortho-k lenses are removed in the morning, and the child's vision will remain clear throughout the day. Ortho-k is a non-surgical option that can be effective for children with mild to moderate myopia.

Refractive Surgery

Refractive Surgery

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct vision problems in teenagers. Refractive surgery is a type of surgery that reshapes the cornea to improve visual acuity. The procedure is appropriate for older teens with severe myopia or hyperopia who are not good candidates for other types of vision correction.

It is important to note that refractive surgery is generally not recommended for children under the age of 18, as their eyes are still developing.

Overall, there are several options available for correcting vision problems in children with myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. Corrective lenses, contact lenses, and orthokeratology can all be effective in improving visual acuity and promoting good eye health. Parents should work with their child's eye doctor to determine the best course of treatment according to their child's specific needs.

As a parent, you should be vigilant about your child's vision and be aware of the signs of common vision problems. By being proactive and scheduling regular eye exams, you can help ensure that your child's eyesight is properly corrected and that they have the best possible chance for success in school and in life.

Learn more about your and your child's eye health in the Ophthalmology24 blog.


All medical facts were checked by Atanas Bogoev M.D.

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